原創翻譯:龍騰網 http://www.bbinjm.icu 翻譯:云飛揚h 轉載請注明出處
論壇地址:http://www.bbinjm.icu/bbs/thread-489072-1-1.html



One hundred and fifty years on from the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, what lessons can we draw today about the way he helped achieve Indian independence?

圣雄甘地誕生150周年之時,今天我們可以從中汲取什么教訓,以了解他幫助印度實現獨立的方式?

He was the ‘great soul’, a modest, saintly man whose campaigns of ‘satyagraha’, non-violent civil disobedience, shook what was then the largest Empire in history to its foundations.

他是“偉大的靈魂”,是一個謙虛的圣人,他的“ satyagraha”(非暴力的公民抗議)運動震撼了當時歷史上最大的帝國。

Gandhi took on the might of the British Empire with ‘soul-force’ and won. Does that prove that non-violent civil disobedience is always the way to achieve political goals?

甘地以“靈魂力量”奪取了大英帝國的權力,并取得了勝利。這是否證明了非暴力的公民反抗永遠是實現政治目標的途徑?



While the Hungarian ‘communist’ government of the late 80s was dominated by people who didn’t believe in communism, similarly there were people administering the British Empire in the 1930s who believed less in old-fashioned empire and more in colonial self-rule, albeit in stages. The problem as B.R. Nanda in his biography ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ (as cited in ‘Mahatma Gandhi and his Apostles’ by Ved Mehta), highlights, is that each British reform/concession “tended to become out-of-date by the time it was actually granted.”

上世紀80年代末,匈牙利的“GC主義”政府由不信仰GC主義的人統治,同樣,上世紀30年代大英帝國的統治者也不太相信老式的帝國,而更多地相信殖民地自治,盡管是分階段的。正如南達在他的傳記《圣雄甘地》中所強調的那樣,問題在于,英國的每一次改革/讓步“往往在實際獲得批準時就已經過時了”。

It also helped Gandhi’s cause that he was admired greatly in the colonial power.

這也幫助了甘地的事業,使他在殖民勢力中備受欽佩。

That die-hard Empire loyalist Winston Churchill may have infamously described him as a “seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir,” but thankfully there were more enlightened views in the British Establishment, and in society at large.

帝國的死忠分子溫斯頓?丘吉爾或許曾將甘地描述為“煽動中間派的神殿律師,現在卻假扮成騙子”,這是出了名的,但值得慶幸的是,在英國當政者和整個社會中,有更開明的觀點。

On a visit to Britain in 1931, Gandhi met with Lancashire cotton mill workers, whose jobs had been threatened by the Indian boycott of British cotton goods. “He met and charmed everyone, low or high,” says Roderick Matthews, author of ‘Jinnah vs. Gandhi’.

1931年訪問英國時,甘地會見了蘭開夏棉紡廠的工人,他們的工作受到了印度抵制英國棉織品的威脅。《真納與甘地》一書的作者羅德里克?馬修斯表示:“他遇見并迷倒了所有人,無論地位高低。”

The international situation was also on Gandhi’s side. The ‘anti-imperialist’ US was keen to see the end of the British Empire, so they could move into its lucrative markets. Britain’s withdrawal from India was expedited due to the financial pressures following World War II and the enormous debt owed to the US.

國際形勢也站在甘地一邊。“反帝國主義”的美國渴望看到大英帝國的終結,這樣他們就可以進入大英帝國利潤豐厚的市場。由于二戰后的財政壓力和欠美國的巨額債務,英國加快了從印度的撤軍。

His enduring influence could be seen in the US civil rights movement of the 1960s, and in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, where Gandhi had also been involved in anti-racist campaigns earlier. Again, these campaigns, for civil rights and against apartheid, succeeded not just because of the methods used but because of who was on the one side and the international situation. White America realised segregation was wrong. Enough white South Africans too came to the same conclusion about apartheid. But it’s worth remembering that apartheid only ended after the Berlin Wall came down, and there was no longer any ‘threat’ of a communist, Soviet unx-allied post-apartheid RSA.

他持久的影響力可以從20世紀60年代的美國民權運動和南非的反種族隔離斗爭中看到,在南非,甘地早些時候也參與了反種族主義運動。同樣,這些爭取民權和反對種族隔離的運動之所以成功,不僅因為所使用的方法,而且因為世衛組織站在一邊以及國際局勢。美國白人意識到種族隔離是錯誤的。足夠多的南非白人對種族隔離也得出了同樣的結論。但值得記住的是,種族隔離直到柏林墻倒塌后才結束,不再有GC主義者、蘇聯盟友、后種族隔離時代的任何“威脅”。

While it would be overly simplistic to say that Gandhism can work anywhere, it would be equally wrong to dismiss what can be achieved by ‘soul-force’, even on what appears to be infertile ground.

如果說甘地主義在任何地方都行得通,那就太過簡單了,而忽視“靈魂力量”所能達到的效果,同樣是錯誤的,即使是在貧瘠的土地上。



“I should think of no person whose undertaking to respect a confidence I should ever have been more ready to accept than his. Measured by human standards, the abrupt cutting short of his life was a tragic deprivation for the country that he loved.” And indeed for the world at large.

“我認為,沒有一個人比他更愿意信守諾言。以人類的標準來衡量,他生命的突然結束對他所熱愛的國家是一種悲劇性的剝奪。” 對整個世界來說也是如此。